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rural homes use some type of septic system to treat household wastewater.
These systems generally are economical and effective in treating these
wastes. However, your septic system must be properly designed, installed,
and maintained to reduce possible harmful impacts to the groundwater that
supplies your drinking water, your neighbors' drinking water, or to surface
waters such as a nearby stream.
What is a septic tank?
It is a tank, typically underground, in which sewage is collected and allowed to decompose bacterial activity before draining by means of a leaching field. They safely treat and dispose of wastewaters produced in the bathroom, kitchen, and laundry. These systems are used when sewage treatment plants are not accessible. The solids must be periodically cleaned from the tank to prevent blockage of field lines and subsequent overflow. With proper maintenance, a septic system can work efficiently for many years. The size of your tank, volume of your wastewater, and the amount of solids in your wastewater are factors that determine how often your tank will need to be pumped.
a well-functioning septic system poses little risk to drinking water,
a poorly operating system is a potential source of disease-causing bacteria,
viruses, household chemicals, and nitrates. If significant amounts of
any of these enter drinking water, they could produce health problems
for you, your family, your pets and livestock, or your neighbors. A properly
designed and functioning septic system breaks down harmful bacteria. In
some cases, local conditions may keep a septic system from performing
As wastewater flows into the tank, the heavier solid materials settle to the bottom and form a sludge layer. The lighter greases and fats float to the top forming a scum layer, and the liquid flows out of the tank. Liquid in the septic system may flow to an area where water frequently
pools near the surface, or the soil under the septic drain field may drain
poorly. If this happens, the system may not completely treat wastewater
and you may unknowingly "recycle" poorly treated wastewater into your
home with your drinking water. An outlet prevents solids from flowing out with the liquids. The tank’s primary purpose is to retain the solids while releasing sewage effluent (liquid) to the drain field.
avoid problems, install your septic system in an approved location and
maintain it properly. Install a new or replacement septic system in well-drained
sandy soil and as far as possible from your well. Pump out your septic
tank regularly to keep it working smoothly and extend the life of the
system. Your septic system will work better and need less maintenance
if you reduce the amount of wastewater and solids, such as food wastes,
paper towels, and other wastes, entering the system. Throw away these
solid wastes in your household garbage.
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