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Water Analysis Example NO. 2

Top 5 Water Contaminants

Date Collected: 7/12/83
Source: Well
Date Analyzed: 7/18/83
Appearance when drawn: Clear, yellow color, no odor, "iron" taste pH (8)
Iron: 2.6 ppm
Bicarbonate: 3.9 gpg
Sulfate: 1.5 gpg
Chloride: 1.1 gpg
Total Anions: 6.5 gpg
Calcium Hardness: 3.4 gpg
Magnesium Hardness: 1.4 gpg
Total Hardness: 4.8 gpg
Calcium Bicarbonate: 3.4 gpg
Magnesium Bicarbonate: 0.5 gpg
Magnesium Sulfate: 0.9 gpg
Magnesium Chloride:
Sodium Chloride: 1.1 gpg
Sodium Sulfate: 0.6 gpg
Color: 50

*All values are reported as CaC09 equivalent except pH and iron.

First, EPA Secondary Drinking Water Regulations recommend a limit of 15 color units in a potable water. Corrective treatment is advisable when water contains more than 15 units of color. 8. The sodium content of this water is 1.7 gpg. You get this figure by subtracting total hardness from total anions. This water with a pH of 8 is definitely alkaline. The alkalinity can be traced to its bicarbonate content. Total anions, of course, equals 6.5 gpg.

What sound corrective treatment? There are several solutions possible for the treatment of this water.

Solution No. 1. You could install a softener unit to remove both hardness and iron. Some manufacturers recommend installation of softeners on such concentrations of iron; others do not. Removal of iron depends to a degree on the type of iron in the water that is being treated. Special multi-purpose water softening appliances automatically clean iron from the resin bed at each regeneration to keep the bed clean and prevent fouling so that both iron and hardness may be effectively removed.

If Solution No. 1 is selected, it is advisable to regenerate the unit more frequently than would be the case if hardness alone were the problem. Taking this precaution will minimize the danger of the iron fouling the exchanger bed. Install the unit on both the hot and cold water lines and connect to the toilets as well to prevent iron . staining. This should prove to be a most satisfactory solution where families are small.

Solution No. 2. Install an iron filter on the hot and cold water lines. Connect it to the piping to the toilets. Install a softener just on the water (both hot and cold) going to the taps. Bypass the toilets. This is a somewhat more expensive method, but is a better way to handle the iron problem where there is a larger number of individuals in a family.

Solution No. 3. Install a chemical feed pump. Use an oxidizing agent such as chlorine in the form of household bleach, or permanganate, a mixing tank and a sand or iron removal filter for removal of the coagulated material. Both hot and cold water should be treated together with the toilets. Also, connect a softener to the hot and cold water lines, bypassing the toilets for removal of hardness.

If the exterior of the home into which the equipment is to be placed is white or some light color, it would be wise to filter the water flowing to the sillcocks as well. There is a definite possibility that where the water is not treated for correction of color, it may stain the exterior of the house during the sprinkling process.

There is a strong indication of color in Water Analysis No. 2. If the color is due to some organic contamination, Solution No. 3 would be best, though more costly.

Now consider one other water analysis which will present several additional problems.
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