Drinking Water Contaminants - Xylene
What is Xylene and how is it used?
A xylene is any of a group of very similar organic compounds. They are clear liquids with a sweet odor. The greatest use of xylenes is as a solvent which is much safer than benzene. Other uses include: in gasoline as part of the BTX component (benzene-toluene-xylene); Xylene mixtures are used to make phthalate plasticizers, polyester fiber, film, and fabricated items.
The list of trade names given below may help you find out whether you are using this chemical at home or work.
Trade Names and Synonyms:
- Dimethyl benzene
- Violet 3
Why is Xylene being Regulated?
In 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. This law requires EPA to determine safe levels of chemicals in drinking water that do or may cause health problems. These non-enforceable levels, based solely on possible health risks and exposure, are called Maximum Contaminant Level Goals.
The MCLG for xylenes has been set at 10 parts per million (ppm) because EPA believes this level of protection would not cause any of the potential health problems described below.
Based on this MCLG, EPA has set an enforceable standard called a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL). MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as possible, considering the ability of public water systems to detect and remove contaminants using suitable treatment technologies.
The MCL has been set at 10 ppm because EPA believes, given present technology and resources, this is the lowest level to which water systems can reasonably be required to remove this contaminant should it occur in drinking water.
These drinking water standards and the regulations for ensuring these standards are met, are called National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. All public water supplies must abide by these regulations.
What are the Health Effects?
Short-term: EPA has found xylenes to potentially cause the following health effects when people are exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time: disturbances of cognitive abilities, balance, and coordination.
Long-term: Xylenes have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: damage to the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys.
How much Xylene is produced and released to the environment?
Production of xylenes was 6.84 billion lbs. in 1993. Major environmental releases of xylenes are due to evaporation from the refining and use of petroleum products. It may also be released by leaks or spills during the transport and storage of gasoline and other fuels. Xylenes are natural products of many plants, and are a component of petroleum and coal tar.
From 1987 to 1993, according to EPA's Toxic Chemical Release Inventory, xylene releases to land and water totaled nearly 4.8 billion lbs. These releases were primarily from petroleum refining industries. The largest releases occurred in Texas. The largest direct releases to water occurred in New Jersey and Georgia.
What happens to Xylene when it is released to the environment?
Most of the xylenes are released into the atmosphere where they are quickly degraded by sunlight. When released to soil or water, xylenes will quickly evaporate. They may leach into groundwater and persist there for several years. There is little potential for accumulation in aquatic life.
How will Xylene be Detected in and Removed from My Drinking Water?
The production of xylenes was 6.84 billion lbs. in 1993. Major environmental releases of xylenes are due to evaporation from the refining and use of petroleum products. It may also be released by leaks or spills during the transport and storage of gasoline and other fuels. Xylenes are natural products of many plants, and are a component of petroleum and coal tar.
If contaminant levels are found to be consistently above the MCL, your water supplier must take steps to reduce the number of xylenes so that it is consistently below that level. The following treatment methods have been approved by EPA for removing xylenes: Granular activated charcoal in combination with Packed Tower Aeration.
How will I know if Xylene is in my drinking water?
If the levels of xylenes exceed the MCL, 10 ppm, the system must notify the public via newspapers, radio, TV, and other means. Additional actions, such as providing alternative drinking water supplies, may be required to prevent serious risks to public health.
Drinking Water Standards:
- Mclg: 10 ppm
- Mcl: 10 ppm
Xylene Releases to Water and Land, 1987 to 1993 (in pounds):
|TOTALS (in pounds)||875,943||3,897,738|
|Top Ten States*|
|Metal barrels, drums||5||289,542|
|Textile finishing, misc.||278,454||0|
|Misc. Industrial chems.||95,706||69,696|
|Extruded Aluminum prod.||1,265||138,798|
|Cotton fabric finishing||68,310||15,000|
|Wood office furniture||0||67,677|
* Water/Land totals only include facilities with releases greater than a certain amount - usually 1000 to 10,000 lbs.As part of the Drinking Water and Health pages, this fact sheet is part of a larger U.S. EPA publication:
EPA National Primary Drinking Water Regulations